Themes - The themes of Baul lyrics are mostly philosophical in the form of allegories on the state of disconnect between earthly soul and spiritual world. The traditional themes of Baul songs are based on Dehatattwa, Gurutattwa, Paramtattwa, Bhaktitattwa etc.

Instruments — The musical instruments used with Baul- Fakiri songs are Ektara, Dotara, Dhol, Khanjani, Flute, Dubki, Khamak, Khol etc.

Costumes and accessories – Bauls and Fakirs wear dhoti, white and black robes, saffron-coloured long punjabis and dresses with patched work depending on their choice and practice. Women wear saffron or white sarees.
Both men and women wear necklaces made of coloured stones, Tulsi or Rudraksha around their neck as ornamentation. While performing they wear Ghunghru on their feet. Fakirs sport metal bangles on their arms.


There are no deviations in terms of the central elements of their songs. Songs composed by Lalan Fakir, Kubir Gosai Neelkantha, Bhaba Pagla etc. are still practised and performed. However, many artists in Birbhum and Bardhaman are also composing songs.

Instruments — Bauls and Fakirs still use their traditional musical instruments. However, instruments like harmonium, tabla and in some cases violin are also used. 

Costumes and accessories – Most of the Bauls and Fakirs use simple traditional dresses. However, leading artists also design their own costumes. Colourful and flashy turbans and sash are also used by them. Costumes are sourced from the local market.